Chemical, fracking use.
Common use example
Hazards, safety notes
||Used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry.
||Hazardous chemical class 3. Highly flammable. Has caused cancer in laboratory animals. Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed. Irritating to eyes and skin.[i]
|2-Butoxyethanol.Surfactant (used to reduce surface tension).
||Used in whiteboard cleaners, liquid soaps, cosmetics and lacquers.
||Poison. Harmful if inhaled or ingested. Skin, eye and respiratory irritant. Long term exposure may cause kidney, liver damage.[ii]
|Acetic Acid.pH buffer (used to adjust pH).
||Gives vinegar its taste.
||Extremely corrosive and flammable. Causes severe chemical burns to eyes and skin. Very harmful if swallowed.[iii]
|Ammonium persulfate.Breaker. Used to reduce viscosity (turns a gel into water)
||Used in hair bleach, blot gels and glass cleaning products.
||.Harmful if swallowed. Very destructive of mucous membranes. May cause dermatitis, eye and respiratory irritation. [iv]
|Boric Acid.Crosslinker to increase viscosity.
||Used in anticeptics to treat cuts and fungal infections (athlete’s foot).
||May cause skin, eye and respiratory tract irritation. Causes digestive tract irritation, May affect central nervous system and cause adverse reproductive effects. [v]
|Boric Oxide.Crosslinker to increase viscosity.
||Used to produce high strength alloys, glasses and ceramics.
||Harmful if inhaled. May cause coughing, nosebleeds, shortness of breath. Prolonged or severe exposure may have systemic effects with persistent vomiting, diarrhoea, depressed circulation, skin rashes, respiratory problems, eventual shock and coma. [vi]
|Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate.Gelling agent/Crosslinker to increase viscosity.
||Used as a fungicide and insecticide in wwood preservatives.
||Is converted to boric acid in living organisms. Dust may cause mild eye irritation. Inhalation of high concentrations may result in respiratory irritation. Chronic overexposure may result in weight loss, diarrhea, skin rash, loss of hair and anaemia. May be harmful to boron sensitive plants if released in large amounts. [vii]
|Hydrochloric Acid.Cleaning of the wellbore prior to fracking.
||Used to clean swimming pool filters.
||Extremely corrosive. Inhalation of vapour can cause serious injury. Ingestion may be fatal. Liquid can cause severe damage to skin and eyes. Threshold Limit Value – 5 ppm. Lethal to fish from 25 mg/l or more. Toxic for aquatic organisms due to pH shift .[viii]
|Methanol.Surfactant. Used to aid gas flow.
|A type of alcohol, can be used in wastewater treatment and as an alternative fuel
||Toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption. May be a reproductive hazard. Ingestion may be fatal. Risk of very serious, irreversible damage if swallowed. Exposure may cause eye, kidney, heart and liver damage. Chronic or substantial acute exposure may cause serious eye damage, including blindness. Irritant. Narcotic. [ix]
|Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether.Mutual solvent.
||Used in household cleaners, fire fighting foam, and to degrease bowling pins and lanes.
||Liquid and vapour are combustible. May be harmful if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin. Irritates eyes, skin, digestive and respiratory tracts. May cause kidney and liver damage, anaemia, blood abnormalities. Linked to low fertility rates in men. May harm unborn babies. [x]
|Muriatic Acid.Used for cleaning the well bore.
||Leather tanning and for cleaning.
||Very corrosive. Causes burning, inflammation, blisters on skin. Irritates eyes. Inhalation causes irritation of mucous membranes, watering of eyes, difficulty breathing, salivation, nausea.Ingestion causes pain in swallowing, intense thirst, abdominal pain, nausea. Swallowing , may be fatal. [xi]
|Potassium Chloride.Clay inhinbitor.
||Used in making fertilizer, gas-welding flux, in medicines and for lethal injections.
||Harmful if swallowed. Eye, skin and respiratory tract irritant. [xii]
|Polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride.Clay control.
||Flocculant in waste water treatment. Wetting agent, shampoo ingredient.
||Irritates eyes and skin. Avoid runoff into storm sewers and ditches. [xiii]
|Quaternary Polyamines.Clay control.
||Used in waste water treatment
||Skin, eye and respiratory irritant. [xiv]
|Sodium Borate.pH buffer.
||A component in glass, pottery, and detergents.
||Skin, eye, respiratory and digestive tract irritant.[xv]
|Sodium Hydroxide.pH buffer.
||Used in paper-making, food processing, soap, detergents, drain cleaners.
||Very corrosive. Causes severe burns. May cause serious permanent eye damage. Very harmful by ingestion. Harmful by skin contact or by inhalation of dust. [xvi]
|Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) Phosphonium Sulfate.Antiseptic.
||Used to elimate bacteria in water, petroleum.
||May cause severe eye, skin, respiratory and digestive tract irritation. May be fatal if large dose swallowed. Prolonged exposure has caused liver, spleen and bone marrow damage in laboratory animals. [xvii]
|Tetramethyl ammonium chloride.Clay control .
||A salt of ammonia.Few common applications.
||Poison. Eye, skin and respiratory irritant. May be fatal if swallowed. Causes dizziness, nausea, shortness of breath, severe hypotension, shock. A known ganglionic blocking agent, causing vasodilation, and curare-like actions, peripheral nerve damage, cardiac paralysis, dyspnea, effects, hypotension.[xviii]